Friday, January 29, 2010

Theory of cookery


The aim or the intention of cooking is to see that the food cooked undergoes a physical change, sometimes a chemical change and is acceptable.
The object of cooking is to achieve certain results such as:
To facilitate and hasten digestion, so that the cooked food is absorbed by the digestive system and subsequently assimilated by the body. This is largely determined in the manner the food is cooked. During the cooking process, it breaks down the cellulose in plant food, softens some of the connective tissues of meat, breaks down and gets starches present. The alteration is brought about in texture, by physical and chemical changes thus assisting mastication.
A physical change occurs when a substance changes its form, colour or size, but still remains that same substance, like water that changes to ice. A chemical change occurs when a substance changes its form, colour or size, combining so as to form an entirely new body, e.g. green marrow changes its colour and milk changes to curd.
The effect of cooking upon the three chief constituents of food­ proteins, carbohydrates and fats-is visible in their increased digestibility.
The protein of meat (myosin), of egg (albumen), of wheat (gluten), of pulse (legumin) is coagulated by heat. Avoid high temperatures as the protein hardens, denatures and shrinks and the food becomes indigestible. The connective tissue is converted into gelatine which is soluble in water and rendered digestible. The proteins' biological value is improved by moderate heating.
STARCH in food is greatly affected by heat. By moist heat, it is converted first into a soluble form and then by extreme heat into a new substance, sweetish in flavour-dextrin as in the crust of bread.
Moist heat causes the starch grains to swell; it gelatinizes at a temperature below boiling point of water, the degree of heat varying with the kind of starchy food.
CELLULOSE is softened by the application of moist heat.
SUGAR when heated in water dissolves, then colors, upon further heating, turns brown and becomes a caramel and emits a lovely flavour, but does not crystallize.
Moderate heat does not cause much loss of mineral salts and vitamins, except vitamin C.
If heated to a very high degree for a long time, fats undergo partial decomposition and fatty acids and glycerol are produced. Glycerol further decomposes into Acer Olin which is an irritating compound to the digestive system.
Cooking pleases the eye and is receptive to the palate and helps to stimulate the digestive juices, thereby creating an appetite. On application of heat, the red coloring matter such as hemoglobin in meat decomposes and changes the red colour to brown. Flavors are developed, which stimulate the digestive juices. The colour of the vegetables is brightened. Green vegetables fast boiled without a lid, improve the green colour. Cauliflower when boiled, in acidic medium, gets a white refreshed look.
Cooking sterilizes the food partially. Cooked food can be stored for a longer time and it prevents food poisoning and diseases when stored properly. Some of the diseases producing germs are killed by cooking. They are killed because of high temperature during the cooking process. A temperature of 60° (140°F) applied over 30 or more minutes, kills most of the pathogenic germs, however, there are some spore germs which are not destroyed by the usual cooking temperature: they take about 4 to 5 hours to get destroyed at a high temperature. High temperature penetrates to the centre or interior of food, especially in pork, beef and mutton.
4. Cooking retains, as far as possible, the nutritive and flavoring ingredients. The flavour depends upon the amount and kind of extractives present, and the acids developed. Nutritive value is enhanced if the fat proportion in the meat is more. While cooking, the nutrition could be preserved by using the cooking liquor.
Cooking gives a variety to the menu, as one food item could be cooked in various ways and given different textures, e.g. mutton in a soup, roast joint, croquettes. Stews, steaks, keema, sookha meat, boti kababs etc. Different methods of cooking when used make the menu interesting and enhance variety. It is. Therefore, easier to plan a balanced diet.
6. Cooking preserves food for a longer time. The high temperature destroys bacteria and limits spoilage.
For the preparation of good, tasty, colorful dishes, it is essential to have a basic knowledge of the raw materials, their characteristics and the special part they play. This knowledge helps to substitute’s materials when necessary, or rectify the texture and taste if something goes wrong. Also it helps to improve the quality and get the standard end product.
The raw materials are thus classified according to the part they play in making up a dish:
(1) Salt (4) Fats & Oils (7) Flavoring and Seasonings
(2) Liquids (5) Raising agent (8) Eggs
(3) Sweetening (6) Thickenings
It brings out the flavour of other ingredients. The other name for salt is sodium chloride; it is readily available in a solid (rock salt) or in a solution form (sea salt). Salt, having a distinctive taste, transforms an insipid dish to a wonderful dish. It should be used skillfully, or too much of it could spoil the dish.
Salt is available in 3 forms:
Table salt containing phosphate
Coarse or Freezing salt for culinary purpose.
Celery salt it is a blend of celery root and ordinary salt and is purchased ready prepared. It is used for flavoring certain dishes as an alternative to fresh celery or celery seed.
1. Use of the correct amount of salt improves the flavour of the savory dishes and when a little is added to the sweet dishes, it enhances the flavour.
2. It has a physical effect on the gluten of flour and strengthens gluten and increases its resistance to the softening effect of fermentation.
3. Cauliflower, when put in salted water, makes the insects come out.
4. It has a controlling effect on the activity of yeast in bakery products. It controls fermentation and hence it has marked effect on crumb, crust and colour of baked products.
5. Salt added to water, for cooking green vegetables, helps in colour retention and enhances the taste.
6. Salting is one of the oldest popular methods of preserving ham, bacon, fish etc.
7. Salt is essential for good health.
Liquids are important as they are used for the purpose of cooking, binding and coating etc. Milk, water, stock and fruit juices are the most commonly used liquids. They prevent food from burning, bind dry ingredients and help in maintaining the right consistency. Water and milk are used for preparing poaching liquor (court bouillon) soups, sauces, gravies, cakes and pastry mixtures and pastry mixtures and kneading of dough, etc. Buttermilk is used for curries. kadi, etc. Stock is a liquid containing soluble nutrients and flavors, which are extracted by prolonged and gentle simmering (except fish stock­20 mins.). They are used as the foundation of soups, sauces, gravies, curries, poaching liquors and many important kitchen preparations. It is important that the correct amount of liquid should be used, or too much would make the food stodgy, soggy or watery.
When sweetening is used with other foods it enhances the combined sensations of odour and flavour of the dish produced. It also adds its own sweetness, and is a versatile food product. Its uses in the kitchen are varied, Substitution of one sugar (castor, icing) for another in a baking formula, gives allowance for the difference in the sweetening effect. Sweetening is available in various forms-granulated, fine-grained, and powdered and in a solution form. Sugars vary in their sweetening quality and are available in the following forms:
Ø Granulated sugar Ø Castor sugar Ø Icing sugar
Ø Lactose (milk sugar) Ø Cane syrup Ø Maple syrup
Ø Treacle Ø Honey Ø Golden syrup.
1. Low concentration of sugar speeds the effectiveness of baker's yeast by providing an immediate, fast cooking course of nourishment for its growth-thus hastening the leavening process.
2. The ability of sugar to crystallize, gives a delightful variety in cookery.
3. Sugar gives puddings, breads, buns and bread rolls a good flavour (caramel), the characteristic golden brown colour, and a tender and even texture.
4. Fermentation is aided by sugar in brewing, wine-making and in the distillation of spirits.
5. Sugar has long been used as a preservative. it is an effective preservative and can dissolve in water at very high concentration.
6. It is an energy food and can be stored for a long time without getting spoilt.
Stock Sugar Syrup
500 gm Cube sugar 120 gm Glucose 1 litre Water
Boil all the ingredients together in a clean Sugar boiler. Strain through a cloth into a basin and keep covered.
Take the required amount from the Stock Sugar and boil to the correct temperature between 116° and 160°F. Keep the side of the pot clean during the boiling, by washing the sides frequently with water. DO NOT STIR Add a few drops of lemon juice and shake well.
Pour on to a slightly oiled marble slab, allow to cool slightly, with a knife turn the sugar over folding, together, work the sugar with the hand to a pliable consistency. Aniline powder is best for this type of work, being very strong in colour and easily dissolved in warm water. The colour is added to the cooked sugar when poured onto the marble slab and before working with hands.

116°C Soft Ball Suitable for Marzipan
119°C Ball Suitable for Fondant
121°C Hard Ball Suitable for Nougat
140°C Small crake Suitable for Italian Meringue
153°C Crack Suitable for Dipping Fruit
160°C Hard crack Suitable for Pulled Sugar
Fats and oils are nutritionally useful and in some form, economical sources of energy and give a satiety value to the dish. They also contribute characteristic palatability, qualities of flavour and texture. They are popularly used as the medium of cooking. Fats are solid at ordinary temperature and melt when heated. Oils are liquids at ordinary temperature. Only coconut oil solidifies at low temperature. Various fats used in cooking are -lard (pig's fat), suet (fat around kidneys), dripping (Tallow Beef fat), butter, margarine, ghee, hydrogenated fat, cocoa butter (for confectionery).Oils are extracted from coconut, palm, sesame, cotton seed, olive, peanut, mustard, corn and sunflower. Salad oil is a deodorized vegetable oil and is used for salad dressings, etc. as olive oil-the best for the purpose - is very expensive and scarce. Fats and oils are used for various purposes, the major culinary part played by them are as:
Ø Spreads Ø Shortenings Ø Salad dressings Ø Frying media Ø Tempering.
Butter and margarines are used for spreads, and their function is to add to the flavour, nutritional value and satiety value of breads.
These are fats which shorten the gluten strands, surround them and make them more easily broken (short). When added to bread, it gives a bit of tenderness, richness and sheen to the crumb.
Dals, curries, rice dishes, etc. are tempered. The fat or oil is heated to which cumin seeds or mustard, or fenugreek seeds, etc. is added and poured over the daIs.

Fat is used for the various salad dressings-Hot animal fat dressings, which consist of bacon fat, vinegar and seasonings, served hot, are used on green hot salads. Cooked dressing is a cooked mixture of egg, vinegar, fat, starch and seasonings. French dressings are emulsions of oil, vinegar or lemon juice and seasoning. Mayonnaise is an emulsion of oil, acid, egg yolk and seasoning.
Fats and oils are used as a medium of cooking, i.e. pan roasting, frying, and sautéing. When fats or oils are heated, a temperature is reached at which visible fumes appear which is defined as smoke point. Fats with high smoke point are suitable for frying. Different fats do not have the same smoke point. The highest frying needed for any food is about 199°C (390°C). Hydrogenated fats have a high smoke point and are good as a frying medium compared to other fats. For the selection of a good fat, the following points should be remembered. A frying fat should have a high smoke point, low congealing point, high stability, low moisture content, and should have an acceptable flavour. Fats and oils have a high percentage of unsaturated fats and have more shortening power, than saturated fats. Animals’ fats such as butter, lard and suet make the food short, i.e. break off (short) and readily melt in the mouth. For the selection of shortening, the following factors should be observed:
1. Shortening should cream well or it will affect the cake volume.
2. It should have no moisture; then it will be short. Shortness is correlated to baking biscuits, cookies, pastries, wafers, mathies, nankhatais, nimkies etc.
3. The shortening should be stable and should not get rancid so that the cooked product has a good keeping quality.
4. The right consistency of fat, i.e. solidified for puff and flaky pastry, soft for cakes and biscuits help to get a good texture. To acquire good results in baking, because of fats and other ingredients, certain rules should be followed- "The richer the pastry, the hotter the oven, and the richer the cake, the cooler the oven."
Animal fat is heated and melted and this renders fat from fatty tissues. Tallow, suet and lard are, usually rendered and used for cooking. The fat is cut into small pieces and placed in a pan and put in the oven or on slow fire, until the fat melts, and there are crisp brown pieces of tissues left. This should be strained through a fine cloth into a clean bowl.
Used fat should be clarified and then used for better results in cooking. Strain the used fat and then mix double the quantity of water in a pan and bring it to the boil. Strain again, cool and place it in a refrigerator. The fat will solidify and float on top. Lift the cake of fat, turn it upside down and scrape off the foreign particles that have collected. Heat the fat on slow fire,till the water evaporates and then strain and store it in a cool place.
Leavening is increasing the surface area of a dough or batter by creating within myriads of gas bubbles puffing up, thus increasing the volume and making it light.
The expansion of these gases during baking increases the volume of the product and gives a desirable porous structure. The aeration of flour products is affected by the following:
1. Biological (yeast) 2. Chemical (baking powder)
3. Mechanical (whisking. beating) 4. Lamination (folding. rolling)
5. Combination of the above.
It is a living micro-organism and is a form of plant life. It requires food, moisture, warmth and air for its growth. The primary function of yeast is to change sugar into carbon dioxide gas, so that the dough, in which it is generated, is aerated. It also assists in mellowing and ripening the gluten of the dough, and it contains vitamin B complex. When yeast is dispersed in water at a suitable temperature and mixed to a smooth paste with flour and all the food necessary for fermentation are present, E.g. sugar, skimmed milk, the sugar acts as food and soluble proteins to form the structure and building material of the new cells. Activity starts within the yeast cell, yeast exudes a substance known as an enzyme which changes a solution of sugar (sucrose) and water into a simple sugar (dextrose) thus absorbed within the yeast cell and changed to carbon dioxide and alcohol, together with other by-products. Other enzymes in flour and yeast change some of the soluble starch to sugar, which in turn is assimilated by the yeast arid changed, so that aeration goes on from this continued production of gas.
When using yeast, these points should be remembered:
It remains dormant in cold.
It rises in warmth.
It is killed by heat (if temperature is over 1270 F).
It is fed by sugar, and in the dough it caramelizes on the outside, forming a brown crust.
It is fed by flour; the starch gelatinizes with the moisture inside the dough and cooks into a light spongy mixture which is digestible.
6. Strong or hard flour is the best to use in bread making.
If salt is added in the correct proportions, it gives a good flavour, controls fermentation and improves the colour of the finished goods.
Commercial yeast is of two main types compressed in cake form (also in a liquid form) and dry yeast in granular form. Compressed yeast is a moist mixture of yeast plants and starch. The yeast remains active and multiplies rapidly if added to the dough. It should be kept in the deep freezer, because it retains its activity for several weeks, or even months. Liquid yeasts and starters are sometimes used in household bread-making. They are mixtures of active yeasts from compressed form with yeast food, such as sugar and potato flour or dough. They have a short storage life.
It is a mixture of yeast with corn meal or starch pressed into cakes and dried. Such yeasts continue to live, but are in an inactive state. When furnished with food and moisture they begin to develop and multiply, but do so slowly. They can be stored for a long time and are inexpensive.
It develops faster than dry yeast and is less perishable than compressed yeast. It is used in straight dough mixing. It should be stored at refrigerator temperature for a longer life.
Chemical aeration is brought about by the production of carbon dioxide from the action, in solution, of an alkali and an acid in the presence of heat. The acid and alkali in correct proportions (which is harmless to human digestion) is baking powder. With this method of aeration, the greater amount of gas should be generated after heat has been applied, i.e. when the goods are in the oven.
The carbon dioxide which is generated passes into the air cells already created and is held by the network of gluten in the dough. This generation of gas and the consequent expansion causes an increase in the volume, which is held by the coagulation of the gluten and other proteins that are present. The dough cooked
becomes light and digestible. Baking powder consists of two parts acid and one part alkali. This can be bought readymade or it can be made as per the following recipes:
Recipe I: Cream of tartar 60 Gms
Bicarbonate of soda 32 Gms
Corn flour (optional. increases the stability of the mixture.)
Sieve together several times. It has to be kept in an airtight tin. The addition of one part rice flour or corn flour will help to keep dry.
Recipe II: Tartaric acid 30 Gms
Bicarbonate 30 Gms
Method: - Same as above.
The latter recipe is suitable, but once moistened it reacts rapidly, so that much of the gas is lost, if delayed in reaching the oven. Other acids which may be used, when combined with bicarbonate of soda will produce carbon dioxide such as vinegar and sour milk. When sodium bicarbonate is heated, it gives off part of its carbon dioxide, but leaves sodium carbonate as a residue. This compound is unpalatable and hence should always be neutralized with an acid which leaves a relatively tasteless and harmless salt. If no sodium bicarbonate is added, the cookies are pale in colour; when it is added, the intensity of colour increases with the quantity of soda. Cream of tartar used in angel cakes increases their activity and tends to make them white and fine grained.
It is incorporating air by whisking, beating and sieving. When sugar and eggs, fat and sugar, fat and flour or any combination of these are beaten or whisked together, or flour is sieved, it works as aeration. Whichever way the air is introduced into the mixing, be it by hand, whisk, spatula or by machine, it is still termed mechanical aeration. Air is incorporated into the mixing by one of the above means and is held there by the fat, eggs, or both; aeration is brought about by the expansion of the air in the hot oven, together with the water vapor pressure within the air bubbles. One of the best examples of mechanical aeration is the sponge cake, where a foam is produced from the eggs and sugar, the flour is then folded in the sponge and baked. The egg and flour proteins coagulate and the starch cooks thereby making the sponge set.
Lamination acts as a raising agent. In pastries- folding and rolling helps to give the lift. In Idlis, khaman, dhoklas, etc. steam formed by the heat, helps to puff up, as liquid and flour are present in equal quantities. As the popcorns have moisture inside the grains, when heated, they expand in volume. The fundamental objective when making puff pastry is to build up a structure of fat and dough consisting of many layers so that when subjected to heat in an oven, it will expand and lift evenly, to produce goods with short eating properties. In the oven, the pastry, which consists of thin layers of dough separated by films of fat, comes under the influence of heat, and the gluten in the dough layers is caused to expand and blister. The fat melts and the dough layers are insulated and the fat takes on a higher temperature, dough layers are cooked, the gluten coagulates and becomes almost rigid and the pastry does not collapse. It is the expansion and blistering of the gluten in the dough layers as a result of steam pressure from the water in the dough that is responsible for the lift.
Danish pastries are a combination of aeration by yeast and by lamination. For this, rich yeast dough is made and butter is incorporated as for puff pastry. In this, the pastry expands in volume, because of the process of aeration, by lamination, and at the same time is aerated by the action of yeast.

Thickening agents give body, consistency, and palatability, when used. They improve the nutritive value. Flavored liquids are thickened and converted into soups, sauces, gravies, curries, bavarois, mousses, puddings, etc.
Binding agents are used to form a mixture of ingredients into a cohesive mass.
The thickening agents are starch, agar, eggs, gelatin, coconut, tamarind, curd, poppy seeds, onion paste, coriander power, etc. Starch is the reserve carbohydrate of plants and is abundant in common foods: corn, rice, wheat, potatoes, arrowroot, and tapioca; rice has about 80% starch, wheat 70% potatoes about 19% starch,
Starch is classified into
Ø Cereal
Ø Starches,
Ø Root starches
Ø Instant starches.
Cereal starch is found in: Rice, wheat and maize. When cooked, corn, wheat, or rice, begins to gelatinize at about 71° (l600F) but requires about 85-96°C (l85-205°F) for maximum thickening. Cereal starches when cooked and cooled tend to gel, while most root starches do not, as they have more thickening power than root starches. Root starches are tapioca, potato and arrowroot which thicken at a lower temperature of 65-71°C (150­160OF) than cereal starches. They thicken completely below boiling point. Instant starches are pre-cooked starches, also known as pre-gelatinized starches. Instant puddings, etc. in the market contain instant starches. Agar is a rigid transparent gel, and is used for salads, sweet dishes. It is seaweed, widely found in China. Eggs give a firm gel when baked, and thicken, but are soft when stirred. Gelatin (unflavored) is used for salads, cold sweets, cold soups. When set, it is transparent, firm and quivery. Coconut is used for curries, and gives the gravy a whitish colour, thickens and enhances the taste. Tamarind is used in a pulpy form and it gives a thickening to the consistency of the gravy and gives a brownish appearance and an acidic taste. Curd is used for thickening curries and it gives a whitish appearance, and a good flavour. Poppy seeds, onion paste, coriander powder give body to the curries, and slightly thicken the gravy and blend with the flavour of the curry.
Spices and herbs give flavoring and seasoning to the dishes. To get effective results, not only should the food please the eye, but should also flatter or stimulate the palate. The success of cooking largely depends upon the help we obtain from flavoring and seasoning. The spice we use for this purpose should be used sparingly, as well as with skill. All palates may not crave for highly spiced food, yet majority of people demand that the food be moderately flavored with the right constituents. To use flavoring and seasoning rightly is a great accomplishment; the dish could be spoilt by being over seasoned. Seasoning should bring out the natural flavors of the main ingredients and blend with them. Seasonings as such have little or no nutritive value but are valuable for they give variety to the dishes and have medicinal value.
From prehistoric times, spices have been used. Clove oil stimulates the flow of gastric juices; garlic, aniseed and asafetida are taken for better digestion, and to reduce the chances of hypertension.

For toothache, clove oil relieves pain. Turmeric and oil applied on swellings and hurts, cures, as it is believed to have antiseptic qualities, etc. Garlic and saunf help digestion, ginger added to tea helps to cure colds. Turmeric added to milk is given to a person who is in a state of shock.
Dishes would be insipid and bland if the spices were not added, because they give a good flavour and stimulate appetite. The flavorings added should not be overpowering, but there should not be a suspicion that they have been added. This mental search for the flavour makes the dish more interesting. Monosodium glutamate is a flavour enhancer in meat and fish dishes. Cinnamon, bay leaf, nutmeg, saffron, pepper, cloves, etc. also enhance flavour. Monosodium glutamate is salt like crystals known as MSG. It is marketed under various brand names and is produced by a special process from wheat, Soya and sugar beet. It enhances flavour in the cooking of savory dishes.
Some of the spices give colour to the food and improve the appearance of the dish. Turmeric, saffron, coriander leaves, poppy seeds, ratanjot and colour to the food, which makes the dish interesting.
Salt is one of the important seasonings that enhance the taste of the food. It also brings out the flavour. The other seasonings that improve the palatability are pepper, chilies, poppy seeds, coriander seeds and paprika, etc.
Many food are preserved for a longer time with the help of spices. Salt is used extensively for preserving - brine solution. Other spices that have the preservative quality are-­turmeric, cloves, mustard, ginger, garlic, asafetida. Pickling is one of the forms of preserving. Spices that have flavorings and seasonings are: Garlic, ginger, cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, cumin seeds, mustard seeds, poppy seeds, nutmeg, asafoetida, coriander powder, mace, pepper, fenugreek, chillies, saffron, aniseeds, turmeric, paprika, caraway seeds, allspice, sesame.
Various herbs are parsley, celery, coriander leaves, thyme, tarragon, rosemary, mint, marjoram, sage, bay leaf, basil, chervil, caripatta etc.

Spices and herbs are available in different forms:
Ø Fresh.
Ø Dehydrated
Ø Powdered,
Ø Liquids Essences (concentrated) of spices. E.g. clove, Cinnamon etc.
Many combinations of spices in a powdered form are marketed today. E.g. chana masala, rasam powder, sambar masala for onions, garam masala, jal zeera masala, meat masala etc. This process retains original flavour and improves keeping quality and makes transportation economical and easy. Spices are also available in liquid form.

Most fishes are edible and the world of fish represent as enormous source of good food. The most nourishing fishes come from the river: the eels, rohu etc. All fishes consists of nearly 75% of water and also the albuminoids consistency varies little from fish to fish ( about 18%). The fat content variation is very high. The fish has the advantage in the content of phosphorated compounds. Especially the lean fishes are much more easily digestible and hence represent as an excellent food for the sedentary workers and sick.
In general terms for recognition purpose, fish can be divided into two groups or types; the flat fishes which are to be found near the bottom of the sea; and the Round fishes which are commonly found swimming near the surface. There are also, of course, Shellfish (crustaceans and molluscs). All of these are further sub-divided, first into Sea or Fresh water fish, white fish, oily fish, etc.; and then into distinct families or groups.
Classification of Fish


Fin fish Shell fish

White fish Oily fish Molluscs Crustaceans
Fin fish
They are vertebrates and have skin and scales which cover the body. They move with the help of fins. They are subdivided into:

White fish
White fish are mainly flat fish, and contain oil only in the liver. Most of these are deep sea fish. Common local examples are pomfret, sole etc.
Atlantic Halibut Winter Flounder
Oily fish
Oily fish are mainly round fish and contain fat all over the body. The amount of fat varies from 1.5% to 20% in different varieties. These fish are often pigmented and tend to be surface fish. Example: mackerels, sardines etc.
Shell fish
As the name denotes have a shell covering the body. They are invertebrates. They are subdivided into:
(e.g. oysters, scallops, mussels, clams and cockles) which have two distinctly separate shells joined by a hinge-like membrane. The movements of the shell are controlled by a strong muscle. When the muscle relaxes, the two halves of the shell fall open. The shell also open when the organism dies, thus exposing the contents of the shell to contamination from outside, resulting in quick putrefaction.
(e.g. whelks and winkles) These are recognized by the characteristic spiral formation of their shells, which unlike those of bivalves are not divided into halves.
The shells of molluscs increase at the rate of one ring per year to allow for the growth of the organism. The age of the molluscs can thus be roughly estimated by the number of rings on the shell.

Crustaceans have a segmented, crust-like shell (e.g. lobsters, crabs, prawns, shrimps). The shells of crustaceans do not grow with the fish, unlike those of the molluscs, but are shed every year, with a new one forming to suit their new size.
Absolute freshness is essential if the best is to be obtained from any fish dish, both in flavour and nourishment. Stale fish are not only unappetizing but can also be the cause of digestive disorders or even poisoning. In these days of quick-freeze, of course, the bulk of the fish reaches the markets frozen and, if the fish was frozen whilst fresh and it is used immediately after defrosting, it will to all intents and purposes be equal to fresh fish, although some of the flavour will have been lost in refrigeration. The following are some tests which can be applied to determine the freshness or otherwise of fish:
1. The eyes should be bright and ‘full’, not sunken;
2. The gills should be bright pinkish red in colour;
3. The flesh must be firm and springy, or elastic;
4. Scales, if any, should be plentiful, firm and should not come off when fish is handled;
5. The fish should have a pleasant, salty smell.
Sure signs and indications of staleness
1. an unpleasant ammoniac odour which increases with its staleness,
2. limp flesh retaining the imprint of one’s fingers,
3. Sunken eyes,
4. Gills dull and discolored.
The quality is determined by the condition of the skin, which should be shining and of good colour. The flesh of white fish should be really white, not yellowish. The fish should feel heavy in relation of size, the flesh plump and springy.
De-scaling And Cleaning
1. Soaking the fish in cold water for a few minutes before descaling, helps in removing scales more easily.
2. The blunt side of the knife should be used.
3. The head of the fish is held with the left hand and holding the knife vertical, scraping is done starting from the tail, working towards the head, the scales are scraped off. The fish is then washed to remove any loose scales.
4. Cut off the fins, remove the head. The entrails should be removed by cutting the length of the fish from the vent end to the head on the belly side.
Cut the flesh along the line of the backbone and raise the fillet from the middle of the back, to the sides, first working towards the head, then the tall.
Hold the tail end of the fish in the left hand, first sprinkling salt on the fingers for a good grip. Skin the flesh (skin side down) from tail to head, with quick short sawing strokes of a sharp knife. Point the knife blade towards the skin so that no flesh is wasted.
La Darne A slice or steak of round fish on the bone. E.g. Darne de Saumon, Darne
De cabillaud.
Le Troncon A slice or steak of flat fish on the bone. E.g. Troncon de Turbot, Troncon
De barbue.
Le Filet A fillet of fish, usually from a small fish without bones. E.g. Filet de sole,
Filet de plie.
Le Supreme Applied to large fillets of fish, cut into portion on the slant e.g. Supreme
de Fletan, Supreme de Aigrefin.
Le Delice Applied to neatly folded fillets of fish e.g. Delice de Sole, Delice de
Le Goujon Applied to fillet of fish cut into strips approx. 6 cm. x ½ cm. (3 in x ¼
in) usually floured, egg-washed and bread crumbed e.g. Goujon de Plie,
Goujon de Sole.
La Paupiette This term is applied to fillets of smaller fish, usually sole which are
stuffed with farce, fish or vegetables, or mixture of both, neatly rolled into a barrel shape, tied or pinned
There are of 30 well known types of herbs approximately 12 are generally used. Herbs may be used fresh but usually dried to ensure continues supply throughout the year. The leaves contain volatile oils which impart flavour and smell. Herbs have no food value but are important from nutritive point of view in adding digestion as they stimulate flow of gastric juices.
Aromatic herb originating in India name is derived from Greek meaning basilikos i.e. royal .The leaves have a strong flavor of jasmine and lemon. Leaves are used in raw or cooked particularly tomato dishes as also salads, stuffing’s.
Bay leaves are leaves of the bay laurel or sweet bay trees or shrubs. They may be fresh or dried and are used for flavoring soups, sauces, staves fish etc. they form an importan part of the Bouquet-garni.
An aromatic plant originating from central Asia but now common throughout Europe, It is best when used in fresh form. It aroma is very volatile and care must be taken to avoid excessive cooking or heating. It is used complement to sauces. In addition to common chervil there in curl chervil
A vegetable grown for its roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Several varieties of cultivated celery are grown for their while fleshy stalks. It yields 20cals per 100g. . The stalks are eaten raw with salt, in mixed salads. The leaves fresher dried can serve as garnish for salads, soups sauces. Celery salt in extracted from dried celeriac roots a used as a condiment for tom juice.
An alliaceous plant related to spring onion, that produces small elongated bulbs and clumps of tubular green leaves. The leaves of the plant are used either fresh or dried for flavouring soups and salads. It has delicate onion flavour. E.g. Vichyssoise - cold leek and potato flavored soup gar and chives.
Dill leaves are used as a culinary herb and seeds are used in cooking in North Africa the USSR and Scandinavia. Dill in also used to make an aromatic vinegar and flavouring for various pickles.
An aromatic umbelliferous plant of Mediterranean region. It grows to a height of 1.2—1.5 m. The feathery leaves and seeds have a slight aniseed flavour. The leaves are also used or a garnish the bulb can be used raw in salads or it can be cooked.
A herb of which the there are various types the most popular being sweet marjoram and wild marjoram is more commonly known as oregano . Sweet marjoram is one of the most favoured herbs in cookery; it has a strong aromatic scent but a fairly delicate flavour. To avoid losing flavor it is best added at the end of the cooking period. Oregano has a much more pungent flavour than marjoram and is popular in Greece and Italian cookery. When dried, both sweet and wild marjoram become much stronger in flaovur and should be used sparingly.
There are many varieties of mint. There are over 25 varieties of mint. Same of them are as follows:
1) Water mint
2) Horse mint
3) Cologne mint
4) Japanese mint
5) Pepper mint
6) Garden mint is the most common used leaves are used to flavour sauces,
Salads and to season roast lamb. Mint cab be used either fresh / dried min will retain its flavour for 02 years if stored in airtight containers.

An aromatic shrub native to Mediterranean whose evergreen leaves are used either fresh / dried as they have a very pungent taste, they are need for flavouring . Name comes form Latin word Rosmmarinus . Combines well with veal, also used in some tomato soacues. In addition a sprig of rosemary gives flavour to milk used for desert.

This plant has a bright green attractive leaf. It is best used fresh, particularly when decorating chaud froid dishes. Tarragon has a pleasant flavour and is used in sauces; one well known e.g. is sauce Béarnaise.

Sage is strong bitter, pungent herb which aids in digestion of rich fatty meats and is therefore used for shiffing s. The different varieties of sage are 1) Garden sage 2) Provengale sage. 3) Catalonian Sage 4) Clary sage.

Spices are natural products obtained from fruits, seeds, roots, flowers or the bark of a number of different trees or shrubs. They contain oils which aid digestion by stimulating the gastric juices. As spices are concentrated in flavour, they should be used sparingly; otherwise they can make the food unpalatable. Most spices are grown in India, Africa, W. Indies and Far East.

This is the berry of ‘Eugenia Pimenta’ a small tree grown in the West Indies .The berries are gathered when green and unripe and dried in the sun. These berries combine flavour of cloves, nutmeg and cinnamon Hence it is called allspice. It is also known as ‘Jamaica Pepper’.

The sun dried flower bud of the clove tree used since ancient times as a spice. Brown and hard, loves are abront ½ in long with a head 1/6 in diameter. The word is taken from the French word ‘Clou’ meaning nail which describes its shape.
Cloves has medicinal properties also .The oil of cloves is used in dentistry to soothe headaches and its antiseptic properties are well known cloves are used in both Indian and western dishes both sweet and savory e.g. pulaows , onions studded with cloves is used in preparation of Béchamel sauce , braised and boiled meat dishes , fruit salads etc.

These are the only known cases of two different spices from the same fruit. What we call nutmeg is the seed of a fruit which resembles an apricot. This set is protected by a thin outer covering which is dried to obtain mace. Although the aroma is similar for N&M, separate used exist for both. When buying nutmegs choose those which are round, compact of oily appearance and heavy for thin size.

An herbaceous plant originating from the Mediterranean region. Mustard seeds are the seeds the plant and mustard powder is the powder of the seeds. There are 3 varieties of mustard.
1) Black Mustard
2) Brown Mustard
3) White Mustard

When mustard is used a a spice, it is used whole e.g. Seeds. When seeds are powdered it becomes a condiment. The pungency of mustard is brought water. In India it is used whole for tempering dishes and in pickles. It is also an important ingredient in certain masalas e.g. indaloo. Mustard when used as a condiment can be flavoured in different ways e.g. with tarragon, garlic, fine herbs, paprika etc. The best known and most widely used mustard is DIJON MUSTRD is produced in the dijon region of France .

A spice obtained from the bark of several topical trees. The bark is removed dried and rolled up to make up a tube fawn or dark brown in colour . Popular varieties of cinnamon are from and Shrilanks and chine. The best cinnamon should be as thin as paper. It has a fragrant odour and its taste is pleasant and aromatic in Frace, it is chiefly used to flavor desserts . In Indian and Far East uses are much more numerous.

This is a fruit of a need like plant grown chiefly along the malabar coast of india . The fruit is a small pod and seeds within pro have a strong sweetish flavour. Cardamom finds a variety of uses in Indian cookery e.g. In pulaos, rich gravies. Masalas powdered car cardamom is use din cakes, puddings etc.

A condiment derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum) a climbing vine native to India, jara.The pepper is the fruit of the plant. Peppercorns harvested at various stages of maturity provide the full.
Types of Pepper

Very strong and pungent
Unripe peppercorns sold dried or pickled less pungent and more fruity
Ripe with enter husk removed by rubbing in salt water
Dried fruits of capsicum plant grown in cayenne Islands

Pepper is sold either whole (i.e. pepper corns) or ground. Ground Pepper quickly loses its flavour and aroma.

Whole pepper corns are used in court- bouillons, marinades, pates etc. Crushed pepper is used for grilled meats, forcemeats hashes etc.

The plant is called ‘corianderum satium’ and is related to the parsley family. The seeds of the plant are used as a spice. Coriander leaves are commonly known as drab parsley or chinese parsley in France and are used especially for garnishing. it can also be used in preparation of certain meat dishes e.g. Nilgiri khorma.

The aromatic root of a plant growing in India and West Indies sold in root form and as powder. Turmeric is member of ginger family fruit has a different flavor. It is used extensively in Indian cookery for imparting colour and flavour to curries.

This is the tuberous root of plant and is one of the few species that grow underground.The most common use of ginger is to make Masalas, drinks e.g. Singer ter and in confectionery such as ginerbiscuitts , cookies etc. When selecting singer points to note are it should be free dirt, skin should be smooth and of light brown colour and should give off the flavoner when burnished slightly

This is a herbs of the caraway type producing seeds of a pleasant small and flavour which are very popular. The seeds come form the fruit of the cumin plant. Added to curry powder or fried whole for seasoning or tempering

The organization of kitchens will vary, mainly due to the size and the type of the establishment. Obviously, where a kitchen has hundred Chefs preparing for banquets for up to 1000 people and a lunch and dinner service for 300-400 customers with a la carte menu, the organization will be quite different from a small restaurant doing thirty table d'hote lunches or a hospital diet kitchen preparing diets.
Even when there are two kitchens of a similar nature, the internal organization may vary, as each Chef de Cuisine will have his own way of running his kitchen. It has been found most satisfactory in organizing the work of a kitchen to divide it into "Parties' or "Corners".
The parties system was perfected by Escoffier and it was the result of studying about the food production and the recipes allocating tasks to different specialists so as to help produce the more complex dishes regularly, efficiently and swiftly. The kitchen was divided into sections, each one of which was responsible for a particular contribution to the entire food production system.
In the kind of kitchen Escoffier organized, the parties system reached the height
of complexity because the end-products had to be of the highest finish and yet be completed to order in rapid sequence for a substantial number of customers. A set pattern was made.
Basically the principles of kitchen organization represent a standard practice though there are no set rules for deciding how many sections and how many staff a particular kitchen requires. Each catering establishment has different factors to be taken into consideration such as extent of menu, number of persons to be served and management policy.
A large kitchen, which caters for a large number, will have more sections than a smaller kitchen catering for lesser numbers. The number of staff in a section is determined by the amount of work to be done and importance of the contribution of the section to the menus and the skill of work. The base of different kitchen organizations is taken from the Traditional Kitchen Organization that was pioneered by Auguste Escoffier, the instigator of the partie or corner system. He had many sections such as grill, roast, vegetable, fish, sauce, soup, larder, patisseur etc. As everything was done manually it was necessary but now the sections have become fewer, because of labour-saving machines, convenience foods and combined catering equipment (microwave cum convection ovens, etc.), and the changing of public taste, which seeks simpler menus and meals.
Latest trends are that the kitchen organizations vary with almost every establishment. In former times there were specialized large staffs called brigades. The various sections were being clubbed together to suit the establishments.
Many kitchens use fresh food, ready to cook and sometimes ready to serve. This speeds the preparation and cooking times. The kitchens have become smaller and cook more versatile. New establishments employ less cooks.

The team of cooks and their assistants under the partie system is commonly called the KITCHEN BRIGADE.
Specialists head the parties and with their assistants help produce complex dishes with great speed and efficiency. All the heads of the parties come under the control of the Chef de Cuisine (Head) aided by one or more sous chefs. In small establishments, head of the larder or sauce section acts as Sous Chef. The organization of various kitchens under partie system is as illustrated on page 248.

The word larder has in professional kitchens a much wider significance. The larder is not simply a place where food is stored but a place where the raw materials for cooking are prepared and dressed. In large establishments, the work is further broken into sections.

Functions of Larder Department
The larder is a room set aside for the storage of perishable foods, both raw and cooked, where food as meat, fish, poultry and game are prepared and made ready for cooking. In this department too, all cold 'items found on the menu, such as hors d'oeuvres, cold dish or meat dishes, cold salads, etc. are prepared and dressed. For these function to be effective, it is essential that:
1. The room should be separate from the kitchen situated in a cool place. At the same time, it must be close to the kitchen to avoid undue running about between the two departments which are closely interrelated.
2. It should be suitably lighted, well-ventilated and sufficiently open to allow the staff to perform their duties in a clean and efficient manner.
3. It must be equipped with the necessary fittings, plant, machinery and tools in accordance with the volume, and or quality of the trade of the catering establishment in which it is situated.
Breakdown of Work
Work is broken down into various fields such as salads, poultry, ; cold buffet, hors d'oeuvres, mousses, cold cuts, sandwiches, etc. . The butcher receives directions from the larder chef according to the commitments of the business. The butchery prepares various Joints in advance according to the menu requirements. Each day certain quantities of meat are trimmed to the first stage, (removal of excess fat, skin and other inedible parts). The butcher carries out further preparations to certain meat items, i.e. boning and trimming to bring it to the stage for final cutting and trimming. Each day a pre-arranged amount of meat is cut and trimmed to the final stages against the menu requirements. Usually in catering establishments with an extensive banqueting service, it will mean that the butcher will have a considerable amount of preparations in the stages mentioned above. By this method the section at all times is able to meet the requirement of the kitchen. In the larger kitchens, the larder section includes fishmonger, who will trim and prepare the dish ready for service and delivery. The chicken is dressed, trussed or cut according to requirements of the menu. Quenelle mixtures are also prepared here. Charcutiery (port section) pork products and sausages are prepared. Rendering of dripping is also done here. All cold buffets, including afternoon receptions are prepared in the larder. Chef de Froid controls the cold buffet section. An important part of the larder duties is the rapId supply of various prepared foods to the kitchen at all times especially during service periods. Salads are prepared and assembled in this section. Hors d'oeuvres are also made and trolley is replenished by the hors d’Oeuvre. Decorative cut vegetables are prepared and they are used for decorating ravieres.

If this department is to be run efficiently and economically, it is essential that chef larder manager should exercise the strictest possible control over the foodstuff received and stored in the department. This involves:
1. Checking the quality and quantity of all goods delivered to the larder.
2. Ensuring that all foodstuffs are stored at the required temperature and they can be easily checked.
3. That the food is protected from contamination by vermin.
4. That portion control is rigidly carried out, e.g. given weight of meat, or fish or vegetables, etc. should always produce the required number of portions of steaks, fish fillets, salads or hors d'oeuvres.
5. Those stocks of food are regularly turned over.
6. That food is not overstocked.
7. That daily stock sheet kept by each should be submitted to the chief larder manager at the end of the day to enable him to write out his orders for the following day.
8. Obviously every effort must be made to maintain highest possible standard of hygiene, to prevent any deterioration in the food under his control. Every precaution should be taken to discourage pilferage.
The Larder Chef, at a set time each day, notifies the Chef, of stocks, of cooked or raw materials remaining.

The sauce section is responsible for providing all meat, poultry. game and offal dishes with the exception of those that are plain roasted or grilled. All the meat dishes are cooked and garnished. The partie will also provide all basic and finished sauces served hot, that are normally required by the various parties in the kitchen. Normally, one first commences early duty to cover the preparations and cooking of dishes as "Plat de Jour" as these often require a cooking time of 3-4 hours. Braising, boiling, peeling is also done in this section. Similar to the fish partie an extensive part of the dishes are cooked and a variety of cooked garnishes are also prepared. Miseen-place for, banquets is also done here. The Chef Saucier does important work as he assembles dishes which have an impact on the customers.

The roast section is responsible for providing all roast dishes of meat, poultry and game. It is responsible for all grilled dishes of meat, chicken, offal and fish, and this duty is often delegated to the grill cook. The section is also responsible for the preparation of a number of dishes and the deep frying of the food items. It also prepares and finishes any savories that are required.

This section is responsible for the provision of all fish dishes with the exception of those that are plain grilled or deep fried. The cleaning, descaIing, filleting, crumbling is done by the fishmonger in larder. Generally as a larger selection of fish are offered, an extensive mise-en-place is required. At each service period, the following basic sauces are made ready for service: béchamel, white wine sauce, fish velouté, hollandaise and melted butter. Further, a number of garnishes are prepared in advance to a part cooked stage, By this arrangement, a variety of fish dishes particularly the poached and meuniere types can be done. Grilling is done by the grill cook or commis.

An entrement course in France was the responsibility of the entrement of vegetables, who skillfully prepared and cooked vegetables, which could be served as a separate course. An entrement was originally something sent to the table between the courses in France. During the period before service, each day various quantities of vegetables are prepared, cooked, refreshed and placed into refrigerator. Peeling, cleaning and trimming are done by semi-skilled workers. Limited quantities of certain potato dishes are cooked and finished to varying degrees, kept ready when service begins. Vegetable garnishes are prepared here and given to other sections. The cooking of eggs forms an important part of the work in this section. Particularly, omelettes of various types, e.g. plain, garnished, stuffed and flat round omelettes. Italian pastas but not noodles are also prepared in this section. Items like spaghetti, macaroni and rice may be sent to other sections for garnishes. The mise-en-place is carried out according to menu requirements. By this method, the vegetable cook and senior commis are able to cope with the finishing and serving of a vast amount of different dishes. Management of cooking vegetables well for large numbers calls for particular knowledge, skill and judgment and should never be entrusted to an unskilled and disinterested cook.

It is the responsibility of this section to prepare soups such as consommés, creams, velouté, purees, broths, bisques and many special international soups. All basic stocks are also prepared here. The cold soups are prepared and passed to the larder for service. The garnishes come from the larder and vegetable section.

This section is responsible for the preparation, of all Indian dishes. The work is subdivided into subsections such as: Indian (bread and rice, pulaos, biryanis, chappaties, puries, bhaturas, etc.), vegetables, (bhajees, curries), meat, (including eggs and fish), tandoor (seekh kababs, tandoor chicken, boti kababs), Indian sweets jalebis, rasgullas, rabri, etc.) Each day a variety of dishes are prepared according to menu requirements.

The work of this section is normally separated from the main kitchen and is self-contained in the matter of cold storage. The function of this section is to prepare hot and cold sweets, for lunches, dinners and pastries for tea-time and other occasions. It also prepares pastes like short and puff pastry, frying batters for making noodles for supply to other corners of the kitchen. Sorbets and water-ice like items are made in pastry section. The service of ices and those sweets which are based upon ice-cream are prepared and assembled in Patisserie. They also include the sweet omelettes au surprise and soufflé surprise, Melbas, etc. The art of pastry includes work like colored sugars to make flower baskets and similar decorative centre pieces, work with fondant and icing sugar, gum pastes, fashioning of praline into decorative objects. Where hotels operate a bakery section, the responsibility is carried out by the master baker. Normally one commis will commence early duty each day to provide the mise-en-place required by the various sections. The section needs workers with skill, imagination and experience.

In common with the Larder and Kitchen Departments, the successful running of the pastry department depends on adequate mise-en-place. Mise-en-place must not be confused with stores, even though stores are, in fact, a form of mise-en-place in that they are ordered in advance and are, in fact, preparation department. To the production department, mise-en-place is the only method of preparing ahead. as the preparation of mincemeat and Christmas puddings is done in this manner, it is usual to make the pudding early in November. Briefly the following is the mise-en-place for kitchen and larder; it is only mentioned to prove the importance of mise-en-place.
Kitchen - stocks, sauces, béchamel, vegetables.
Larder - Joints of meat, poultry, fish, meat for pies, puddings, etc. In common with the Larder, the pastry is also a supplying department and the mise-en-place for these other departments must be taken into account. Tartlet cases, bouche'es, Nouilles, pie and pudding covering etc. The following is a list of the most essential pastry preparations:
Pastes -short, sweet, puff (left at four turns), brioche, pâté a' crepe
Creams -Butter-cream, frangipane, crème patisseur, creamed rice
The above should always be available, and kept in the refrigerator but not a freezing point; 40° is cold enough. Pastes become very difficult to manipulate if they are frozen. The butter-cream is used for various gateaux, creamed rice for Condes, baked rice pudding (a'la carte). The pancake batter is also for a' la carte service. Crèmes, Patisseur has many uses, being a quick source of sweet soufflés and weakened down for trifles, sauces, etc. It is an advantage to have a supply of crème caramels for they are in constant demand as a' la carte-sweets. Coryotes of fruit are used in the main meals and the mise-en­ place must include figs and prunes as they are in constant demand at breakfast. Naturally, tinned fruit should be used only when fruits are out of season. Genoise, Swiss Rolls, finger biscuits, meringues, and vacherins are essential mise-en-place for the easy preparation for gateaux, trifles, meringue, Chantilly or glace Charlotte Russe, etc. Pastries can either be partly prepared in the form of frangipane tartIets, barquettes, etc. or the tartlet cases lined with paste and finished the following day, in the same method as such things as vol­au-vent, bouche, fleurons, etc. Dry petit fours in the form of macaroons, langues des chats, etc. as also pastilles de menthe, fudge, coconut kisses are easily stored, and leaving only the fondant and sugar dipped varieties to be completed on the day of use. If ice creams in their many forms are made on the premises, they should be made in advance: this includes bombes, biscuits, biscuit glace, and soufflés.

Any source of heat energy is termed as fuel. The term fuel includes all combustible substances obtained in bulk. Fuel is a substance which produces a large amount of heat when burnt with oxygen of the atmospheric air. Fuels are primarily used for heating purpose.

Fuels are of following types

Solid Fuel
Coal, Peat, Lignite, Wood, Coke, Anthracite, Bituminous
Liquid Fuel
Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene, Coal tar, Molasses, Sprit, Shale oil
Gaseous Fuel
Methane, Coal gas, Producer gas, Compressed blast furnace gas,

Town gas, Water gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas.


The good fuel should have following qualities:

Should have low ignition point.
Should has high calorific value
Should produce minimum quantity of smoke
Should be easy to store and transport
Should have moderate rate of combustion
Should have low content of volatile material
Should not produce poisonous products on combustion
Should be available readily and plentiful

Advantages of solid fuel
1. They are east to transport
2. They are convenient to store without any risk of spontaneous explosion
3. Their cost of production is low
4. They posses moderate ignition temperature
Disadvantages of solid fuel
1. Their ash contents are high
2. Combustion efficiency is low
3. They have low calorific value
4. Large space is required for their storage
5. Their combustion operation can not be controlled

Advantages of Liquid fuel
Storage space required is minimum
They have high calorific value
Fuels do not deteriorate during storage
Their flames can be controlled
They have low ignition temperature

Disadvantages of Liquid fuel
Heat produced is costly
Requires costly and special storage tank
They give bad odour
Burners chocking is possible


Advantages of Gaseous fuel

They have higher calorific value
They can be lighted at moments notice
Conveyed easily through pipe lines
Burns without ash and smoke
Cleanliness in use

Disadvantages of Gaseous fuel

Very large storage tank is needed
They are highly inflammable
The risk of explosion is associated with gaseous fuels

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